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    Developmental Plans in India


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    Developmental Plans in India

    Post  Abhishek on Thu Apr 28, 2011 6:12 pm

    This thread is exclusively for posting materials relating to Indian Development Plans.

    All the articles of this thread are copied from

    1. Kaushal Vikas Yojna

    On August 15, 2007, India's Prime Minister had announced to set up 1600 Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) & Polytechnics and 50,000 Skill Development Centres with active help of the private sector.
    Consequntly, Ministry of Labour & Employment has undertaken a project titled “Kaushal Vikas Yojana” to set up 1500 Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) & 5000 Skill Development Centres (SDCs) in Public Private Partnership (PPP) mode in India at locations identified by the State Governments. These ITIs are proposed to be set up in unserviced blocks (blocks where no ITIs/ITCs exist) & SDCs in a cluster of about ten villages. State Governments have been requested to identify locations where free of cost land and basic infrastructure such as power, water, road, etc. are available.

    These ITIs are proposed to be set up in unserviced blocks (blocks where no ITIs /ITC s exist) & SDCs in a cluster of about ten villages.

    The objective of setting up these institutions is to provide access to vocational training facilities to youth in rural, hilly, border & difficult areas. It is expected to provide opportunities of Skill development at door step of youth.

    Public Private partneship:
    Participation of private sector is expected to increase the number of vocations; impart quality & relevant training according to requirement of different sectors of economy and seek their assistance in placement of skilled youth.

    Establishment of such institutes involves three partners
    Private Training Provider playing the leading role
    State Government providing land free of cost and basic infrastructural support
    Central Government providing Viability Gap Funding (VGF), if needed.
    Depending on the locations, various options are proposed to be explored. Funding pattern may vary from place to place.

    Current Situation:
    The Govt. is in the process of preparing Detailed Project Report with the help of a Transaction Advisor and obtaining mandatory approvals. The project is likely to be rolled out in 2010-11.

    2. National Livelihood Mission (NLM)

    India's Ministry of Rural Development is proposing to re-design the Swarnjayanti Gram Swarojgar Yojana (SGSY) into National Livelihood Mission (NRLM). Here are the proposed main features of the NRLM:
    To bring each BPL household under Self Help Group (SHG) net,
    To set up dedicated implementation structure at various levels,
    To enhance capital subsidy for the beneficiaries,
    To ensure easy access for multiple doses of credit,
    To form and strengthen people owned organization such as Self Help Groups (SHG) Federation at various level,
    To upscale the skill development and placement programs, Rural Self Employment Training Institute (RSETIs) in each district of the country.
    It is also proposed to induct dedicated professionals at various levels for implementation of the program. Special emphasis will be given to technology inputs. Under the scheme, it is provided that Schedule Caste (SC) and Schedule Tribes (STs) will account for at least 50% of Swarojgaries, women 40%, minorities 15% and disabled 3%.Under the existing guidelines of SGSY, 15% of allocation is set apart for taking up special projects which are of pioneering nature for bringing a specified large number of rural below poverty line (BPL) beneficiaries above poverty line in a time bound manner.

    The objective of the Swarnjayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY) is to bring the assisted poor families (Swarozgaries) above the Poverty Line by ensuring appreciable sustained level of income over a period of time. This objective is to be achieved by inter alia organising the rural poor into Self Help Groups (SHGs) through the process of social mobilization, their training and capacity building and provision of income generating assets. The SHG approach helps the poor to build their self-confidence through community action.

    3. Navjaat Shishu Suraksha Karyakram

    Neonatal Deaths in India:
    According to WHO stats, out of 9.2 million under-5 deaths in world, India accounts for 2.2 million which is maximum in the world. Two-third of the neo-natal deaths occurred in the first week of life, two-third of those took place within the first 24 hours due to non-availability of delivery institutions in villages and smaller towns.
    Causes of neonatal deaths include infection, complications related to premature birth, pneumonia, diarrhoea and measles apart from hypothermia and infection, and basic newborn resuscitation.
    Focus on New Born Care in National Rural Health Mission:
    To reduce the neonatal mortality which constitutes 45% of under-5 mortality, the following initiatives have been taken under the NRHM framework:
    (i) Navjat Shishu Suraksha Karyakram – a new programme in Basic new-born care and resuscitation (23% of neonatal death occurs due to asphyxia at birth).
    (ii) Creation of new-born care units at district level hospitals, stabilization units at CHC level and new born corners at PHC level to provide specialized care.
    (iii) Skill development of ASHAs and skilled birth attendants to ensure home-based new born and child care.
    The above three prong strategy is expected to make a significant reduction in infant mortality.
    Navjaat Shishu Suraksha Karyakram
    Navjat Shishu Suraksha Karyakram is a new programme in Basic new-born care and resuscitation (23% of neonatal death occurs due to asphyxia at birth).
    A two-day training module for care providers at health facilities has been developed and training programme to train master trainers at State and district levels has been rolled out with the support of Indian Academy of Paediatrics and Neonatal Forum of India. Training for all care providers shall be completed by June 2010.
    The NSSK will train healthcare providers at the district hospitals, community health centres and primary health centres in the interventions at birth with the application of the latest available scientific methods aimed at significantly reducing the infant mortality ratio.
    The Health and Family Welfare Ministry will organise district level trainers’ training programme for 10 States and master trainers’ training programmes in other States and Union Territories.
    The States will be expected to roll out training for medical officers, nurses and auxiliary nurse midwives on their own.
    This program was launched in September 2009 by Union Health Minister Gulam Nabi Azad. The aim of the program is to reduce the Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) from 55 to 30 by the year 2012.
    IMR in India was 60 in 2003 & 55 in 2007. The new programme will enable the paramedical staff to save new born child and mother at various health centres across the country.

    Last edited by Abhishek on Thu Apr 28, 2011 6:25 pm; edited 2 times in total

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    Re: Developmental Plans in India

    Post  Abhishek on Thu Apr 28, 2011 6:13 pm

    History of Development & Employment Programs in India: at a Glance

    1952: Community Development Programme (CDP)
    overall development of rural areas and people’s participation.
    1960-61: Intensive Agriculture Development program (IADP)
    To provide loan for seeds and fertilizers to farmers
    1964-65: Intensive Agriculture Area programme (IAAP)
    To develop special harvest in agriculture area.
    1965 : Credit Authorization Scheme (CAS)
    Involved qualitative credit control of reserve bank of India
    1966-67: High yielding variety programme (HYVP)
    To increase the productivity of food grains by adopting latest varieties of inputs of crops.
    1966-67: Green Revolution:
    To Increase productivity. Confined to wheat production.
    1969: Rural Electrification Corporation
    To provide electricity in rural areas
    1972 : Scheme of Discriminatory Interest Rate
    To provide loan to the weaker sections of society at a concessional interest rate of 4%
    1972-73 : Accelerated Rural water Supply Programme (ARWSP)
    Providing drinking water in villages
    1973: Drought Prone Area Programme:
    Protection from drought by achieving environement balace and by developing ground water
    1973: Crash Scheme for Rural Employment CSRE
    For rural employment
    1973-74 : Marginal Farmer and Agriculture Labor Agency (MFALA)
    Technical & financial assistance to marginal farmers
    1974-75: Small Farmer Development Scheme SFDS
    Technical & financial assistance to small farmers
    1975: Command Area Development Programme: (CADP)
    Better utilization of irrigational capacities
    1975: Twenty Point Programme (TPP)
    Poverty eradication and an overall objective of raising the level living
    1977: National Institution of Rural Development
    Training, investigation and advisory for rural development
    1977-78 : Desert Development Programme: (DDP)
    To control the desert expansion by maintaining environment balance
    1977-78: Food For Work Programme:
    providing food grains to labor
    1977-78 : Antyodaya Yojna :
    Scheme of Rajasthan, providing economic assistance to poorest families
    1979 : Training Rural Youth for Self Employment TRYSEM (launched on 15th August)
    educational and vocational training
    1980 : Integrated Rural Development Programme :IRDP (launched on October 2, 1980)
    overall development of rural poor
    1980 : National Rural Development programme NREP
    employment for rural manforce
    1982 : Development of Women & Children in Rural Areas (DWCRA)
    sustainable opportunities of self employment to the women belonging to the rural families who are living below the poverty line.
    1983 : Rural Landless Employment Guarantee Programme (RLEGP) (Launched on August 15)
    employment to landless farmers and laborers
    1983-84: Farmers Agriculture Service Centers FASCs
    Tell the people use of improved instruments of agriculture
    1984 : National Fund for Rural Development : To grant 100% tax rebate to donors and also to provide financial assistance for rural development projects
    1985: Comprehensive Crop Insurance Scheme:
    Crop Insurance
    1986: Council of Advancement of People’s Action & Rural Technology (CAPART)
    Assistance to rural people
    1986: Self Employment Programme for the Poor SEPUP
    Self employment through credit and subsidy
    1986: National Drinking Water Mission:
    For rural drinking water renamed and upgraded to Rajiv Gandhi National Drinking Water Mission in 1991.
    1988: Service Area Account
    Rural Credit
    1989: Jawahar Rozgar Yojna : JRY
    Employment to rural unemployed
    1989: Nehru Rozgar Yojna NRY
    Employment to Urban unemployed
    1990: Agriculture & Rural Debt Relief Scheme: ARDRS
    Exempt Bank loans up to Rs. 10000 for rural artisans and weavers
    1990: Scheme for Urban Micro Enterprises SUME
    Assist urban small entrepreneurs
    1990: Scheme of Urban wage Employment SUWE
    Scheme for urban poor’s
    1990: Scheme of Housing and Shelter Upgradation (SHASU)
    Providing employment by shelter Upgradation
    1991: National Housing Bank Voluntary Deposit Scheme
    Using black money by constructing low cost housing for the poor.
    1992: National Renewal Fund
    This scheme was for the employees of the public sector
    1993: Employment Assurance Scheme (EAS) (Launched on October, 2)
    Employment of at least 100 days in a year in villages
    1993: Members of parliament Local Area Development Scheme MPLADS (December 23, 1993)
    Sanctioned 1 crore per year for development works
    1994: Scheme for Infrastructural Development in Mega Cities : SIDMC
    Water supply, sewage, drainage, urban transportation, land development and improvement slums projects in metro cities
    1993: District Rural Development Agency DRDA
    Financial assistance to rural people by district level authority
    1993 : Mahila Samridhi Yojna (October 2, 1993)
    Encourage rural women to deposit in Post office schems
    1994 : Child labor Eradication Scheme
    Shift child labour from hazardous industries to schools
    1995: prime Minister Integrated Urban Poverty Eradication programme PMIUPEP
    To eradicate urban poverty
    1995 : Mid day Meal Scheme:
    Nutrition to students in primary schools to improve enrolment, retention and attendence
    1996: Group Life Insurance Scheme for Rural Areas
    Insurance in rural area for low premium
    1995: national Social Assistance programme:
    Assist BPL people.
    1997-98; Ganga Kalyan Yojna
    Provide financial assistance to farmers for exploring ground water resources
    1997 Kastoorba Gandhi Education Scheme: (15 August 1997)
    Establish girls schools in low female literacy areas (district level)
    1997: Swaran Jayanto Shahari Rojgar Yojna:
    Urban employment
    1998: Bhagya Shree Bal Kalyan Policy
    Upliftment of female childs
    March 1999 : Annapurna Yojna
    10 kgs food grains to elderly people
    April 1999: Swaran Jayanto Gram Swarojgar Yojna
    Self employment in rural areas
    April 1999: Jawahar Gram Samriddhi Yojna
    Village infrastructure
    August 2000 : Jan Shree Bima Yojna
    Insurance for BPL people
    2000 : Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yojna
    Basic needs of rural people
    December 25, 2000 : Antyodaya Anna Yojna
    To provide food security to poor
    December 25, 2000 : Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojna:
    Connect all villages with nearest pukka road.
    September 2001: Sampoorna Grameen Rozgar Yojna
    Employment and food security to rural people
    December 2001: Valmiki Ambedkar Awas Yojna VAMBAY
    Slum houses in urban areas
    2003: Universal health Insurance Scheme:
    Health insurance for Rural people
    2004: Vande mataram Scheme VMS
    Initiative of public Private partnership during pregnecy check up.
    2004: National Food for Work programme
    Supplementary wage as foodgrains for work
    2004: Kastoorba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya
    Setting up residential schools at upper primary levels for girls belonging to predominantly OBC, SC & ST
    2005: Janani Suraksha Yojna
    Providing care to pregnant women
    2005, Dec. 16 : Bharat Nirman
    Development of India through irrigation, Water supply, Housing, Road, Telephone and electricity
    2005: National Rural Health Mission:
    Accessible, affordable, accountable, quality health survices to the porest of the poor on remotest areas of the country.
    2005: Rajeev Gandhi Grameen Vidyuti Karan Yojna:
    Extending electrification of all villages and habitations and ensuring electricity to every household.
    2005: Jawahar Lal Nehru national Urban Renewal Mission: (JNNURM)
    Click here to read more
    2006: February 2 : National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme NREGS
    100 days wage employment for development works in rural areas.
    2007: Rastriya Swasthya Bima Yojna :
    Health insurance to all workers in unorganized area below poverty line.
    2007: Aam Aadmi Bima Yojna
    Insurance cover to the head of the family of rural landless households in the country.
    2009: Rajiv Awas Yojna
    To make India slum free in 5 years

    Which scheme merged with which?
    National Food for Work program was merged with NREGA
    Sampoorna Grameen Rojgar Yojna merged with NREGA
    Intesified Jawhar Rozgar Yojna 1993 was merged with Employment Assurance Scheme 1996 which was later merged with Sampoorna grameen Rozgar Yojna 2001.
    IRDP , TRYSEM, DWCRA, Million Wells Scheme, SITRA & Ganga kalian Yojna merged with Swaran jayanti Gram Swarojgar Yojna.
    Rural Landless Employment Guarantee programme merged with Jawahar Rojgar Yojna which was replaced by Jawahar Gram Samridhi Yojna (1999) and Jawahar Gram Samridhi Yojna was merged with Sampoorna grameen Rojgar Yojna (2001)

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    Saakshar Bharat Mission

    Post  Abhishek on Thu Apr 28, 2011 6:26 pm

    Saakshar Bharat Mission

    Saakshar Bharat Mission was launched in September 2009 by Prime Minster Man Mohan Singh for Female Literacy on International Literacy Day (September 8, 2009) in New Delhi.

    This is a Centrally Sponsored Scheme, under the aegis of Department Of School Education & Literacy, Ministry Of Human Resource Development, Government of India.

    • To further promote and strengthen Adult Education, specially of women, by extending educational options to those adults who having lost the opportunity of access to formal education and crossed the standard age for receiving such education, now feel a need for learning of any type, including, literacy, basic education (equivalency to formal education), vocational education (skill development), physical and emotional development,practical arts, applied science, sports, and recreation.
    • To impart functional literacy to non-literates in the age group of 15-35 years in a time bound manner, the National Literacy Mission (NLM) was launched in 1988 and it continued through Ninth and Tenth Five Year Plans. By the end of the Tenth Five Year Plan (March 2007), NLM had covered 597 districts under Total Literacy Campaign (TLC), 485 districts under Post Literacy Programme (PLP) and 328 districts under Continuing Education Programme (CEP). As a cumulative outcome of these efforts, 127.45 million persons became literate, of which, 60% learners were females, while 23% learners belonged to Scheduled Castes (SCs) and 12% to Scheduled Tribes (STs).

    Illiteracy in India

    • Despite significant accomplishments of the National Literacy Mission, illiteracy continues to be an area of national concern. 2001 census had revealed that there were still 259.52 million illiterate adults (in the age group of 15 ) in the country.
    • While further accretion into the pool of adult illiterate persons is expectedto recede significantly on account of enhanced investments in elementaryeducation and a reverse demographic trend, addition to this pool cannot be ruledout altogether on account of relatively high school drop out ratio.
    • Wide gender,social and regional disparities in literacy also continue to persist.
    • Adult educationis therefore indispensable as it supplements the efforts to enhance and sustainliteracy levels through formal education.
    • It was, therefore, considered necessary to continue the NLM during the XI Planperiod. While acknowledging, in principle, the need for continuing andstrengthening further the efforts to promote Adult Education, the PlanningCommission agreed to the continuance of NLM during the XIth Plan provided itwas appraised de novo and modified suitably to meet the contemporarychallenges.
    • The programme was accordingly subjected to extensive in-house andexternal review and evaluation.
    • This in-depth appraisal had revealed certain inadequacies in the design,architecture and mode of implementation of the programme, most conspicuousbeing, non-viability of a single pan Indian solution, limitations of voluntaryapproach, limited involvement of the State Governments in the programme, lackof convergence, weak management and supervisory structures, lack of communityparticipation, poor monitoring and inadequate funding.
    • Saakshar Bharat will come into operation from 1-10-2009. Though duration of thescheme, National Literacy Mission, was valid only till the end of the Tenth FiveYear Plan, residual activities under the Mission were allowed to continue till30-09-2009, as a special dispensation, so that the ongoing activities could becompleted during the extended period. With the launch of Saakshar Bharat, theNational Literacy Mission and its entire programmes and activities standconcluded on 30.09.2009.

    Last edited by Abhishek on Thu Apr 28, 2011 6:29 pm; edited 1 time in total

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    Re: Developmental Plans in India

    Post  Abhishek on Thu Apr 28, 2011 6:28 pm

    Pradhanmantri Adarsh Gram Yojana (PMAGY)

    The Government of India has launched a new scheme called Pradhanmantri Adarsh Gram Yojana (PMAGY) for the integrated development of scheduled castes dominated villages in the country. The Finance Minister while presenting the Budget 2009-10 in the Lok Sabha said that there are about 44,000 villages in which the population of scheduled castes is above 50 per cent. Shri Mukherjee said that the new scheme PMAGY will be launched this year on a pilot basis in 1000 such villages. An amount of Rs. 100 crore has been allocated for this Scheme.

    Under this Scheme, each village would be able to avail gap funding of Rs. 10 lakh over and above the allocations under Rural Development and Poverty Alleviation Schemes. On successful implementation of the pilot phase, the PMAGY would be extended in coming years.
    inputs from PIB

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    Re: Developmental Plans in India

    Post  Abhishek on Thu Apr 28, 2011 6:30 pm

    Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yojana (PMGY)

    PMGY was launched in 2000-2001 in all States and Union Territories (UTs) in order to achieve the objective of sustainable human development at the village level. The PMGY envisages allocation of Additional Central Assistance (ACA) to the States and UTs for selected basic minimum services in order to focus on certain priority areas. PMGY initially had five components viz., primary health, primary education, rural shelter, rural drinking water and nutrition. Rural electrification was added as an additional component from 2001-02. For 2002-03 as well as 2003-04, the allocation of ACA for PMGY was Rs. 2,800 crore. Both financial and physical monitoring of the programme is being carried out by the Planning Commission.

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    Re: Developmental Plans in India

    Post  Abhishek on Thu Apr 28, 2011 6:31 pm

    Swarnajayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY)

    This Scheme was launched after a review and restructuring of the erstwhile Integrated Rural Development Program(IRDP) and allied schemes like Training of Rural Youth for Self Employment (TRYSEM), Development of Women and Children in Rural Areas (DWCRA), Million Wells Scheme (MWS), Supply of Improved Toolkits to Rural Artisans (SITRA) & Ganga Kalyan Yojna.
    SGSY was launched on April 1, 1999 and is the only self employment Programme currently being implemented.
    The objective of the SGSY is to bring the assisted Swarozgaris above the poverty line by providing them incomegenerating assets through bank credit and Government subsidy.
    The Scheme is being implemented on a 75:25 cost sharing of between the Centre and the States.
    Since its inception, and up to April 2004, a total allocation of Rs. 6,734 crore was made available by the Centre and States. Rs. 4,980 crore, have been utilized up to April 2004, benefiting 45.67 lakh Swarozgaris.
    In the Union Budget 2009-10, Allocations of Rs. 2350 Crore was made for establishing micro-enterprises in rural areas through activity clusters and group approach under Swaranjayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana. At least 50% of the Swarozgaries will be SCs/STs, 40% women and 3% disabled.
    In The Union Budget 2010-11 Rs. 2984 Crore have been provided in outlays including Rs. 301 crore for NE region.
    Focussed Approach to poverty Alleviation by setting up a large number of Micro enterprises in rural areas of our country.
    Capitalising group lending
    Overcoming the problem of running multiple programmes overlapping each other.
    A holistic programme of micro enterprises covering all aspects of self employment which includes organising rural poor into Self help groups.
    Integration of various agencies like District Rural Development Agencies, Banks, Line Departments., Panchayati Raj Instituions, NGOs etc.
    Bring the assistated poor family above BPL by providing them a mix of income generating assets like bank credit + Government subsidy.
    National Livelihood Mission:
    India's Ministry of Rural Development is proposing to re-design the Swarnjayanti Gram Swarojgar Yojana (SGSY) into National Livelihood Mission (NRLM).

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    Re: Developmental Plans in India

    Post  Abhishek on Thu Apr 28, 2011 6:32 pm

    Sampoorna Grameen Rozgar Yojana (SGRY)

    The SGRY was launched in September 2001, by merging the ongoing Schemes of Jawahar Gram Samridhi Yojana (JGSY) and Employment Assurance Scheme (EAS).
    The objective of the programme is to provide additional wage employment in the rural areas as also food security, along with the creation of durable community, social and economic infrastructure in rural areas.
    The SGRY is open to all rural poor who are in need of wage employment and desire to do manual and unskilled work in and around the village/habitat. The Scheme is implemented through Panchyati Raj Institutions.
    The scheme envisages generation of 100 crore man-days of employment in a year. The cost of each component of the programme is shared by the Centre and States in the ratio of 75:25. During the year 2003-04 an amount of Rs. 4,121 crore as cash component and 49.97 lakh tones of food grain were released to the States/UTs and 76.45 crore man-days (Provisional) have been generated as reported by the States/UTs. Under the Special Component of the SGRY, 65.84 lakh tonnes of foodgrain have been released to 12 calamity affected States during 2003-04.

    Sampoorna Grameen Rozgar Yojana (SGRY)

    This scheme has been merged with NREGS since February 2006 so only most important points are given below:
    The Sampoorna Grameen Rozgar Yojana (SGRY) was launched on 25 September, 2001 by merging the on-going schemes of EAS (Employment Assurance Scheme) and the JGSY (Jawahar Gram Samridhi Yojna)
    Objective was to providing additional wage employment and food security, alongside creation of durable community assets in rural areas.
    The annual outlay was Rs. 10, 000 crore which included 50 lakh tones on food grains.
    The cash component shared between the Centre and the States in the ratio of 75:25.
    Food grains were provided free of cost to the States/UTs.
    Minimum wages paid to the workers through a mix of minimum five kg of food grains and at least 25 per cent of wages in cash.
    Implemented by all the three tiers of Panchayati Raj Institutions. Each level of Panchayat was an independent unit for formulation of Action.
    Resources distributed among District Panchayats, Intermediate Panchayats and the Gram Panchayats in the ratio of 20:30:50.
    Contractors not permitted to be engaged for execution of any of the works and no middlemen/intermediate agencies can be engaged for executing works under the scheme.

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    Re: Developmental Plans in India

    Post  Abhishek on Thu Apr 28, 2011 6:33 pm

    Rural Housing Schemes

    Rural housing schemes such as Indira Awaas Yojana (IAY) aim at providing dwelling units, free of cost, to the poor families of the Scheduled Castes (SCs), Scheduled Tribes (STs), freed bonded laborers and also the non- SC/ST persons Below Poverty Line (BPL) in the rural areas.
    The Scheme is funded on a cost-sharing basis of 75:25 between the Center and States.
    Till the end of 2003-04, the ceiling on construction assistance under IAY was Rs. 20,000/- in plain areas and Rs. 22,000/- in hilly areas, which has been increased to Rs. 25,000/- per unit for plain areas and Rs. 27,500/- for hilly areas from April 1, 2004. Twenty per cent of the allocation is allowed for upgradation of unserviceable Kutcha houses for which ceiling of Rs. 12,500 per unit applies since April 2004.
    Credit-cum-Subsidy Scheme for rural housing targeting rural families having annual income up to Rs. 32, 000 was launched on April 4, 1999. An amount of Rs. 10 crore as equity support was provided to Housing and Urban Development Corporation (HUDCO) during 2003-04 by Ministry of Rural Development.
    In addition, the innovative scheme of Rural Housing and Habitat Development and Rural Building Centres (RBCs) was introduced to encourage innovative, cost effective and environment friendly solutions in building/housing sectors in rural areas.
    A National Mission for Rural Housing and Habitat has also been set up to address the critical issues of housing gap and induction of science and technology inputs into the housing/construction sector in rural areas.
    Since inception (up to June 1, 2004) 113.96 lakh houses have been constructed/upgraded by incurring an expenditure of Rs. 19,869 crore. During 2003-04, against the target of 14.84 lakh, 12.54 lakh (provisional) houses have been constructed/upgraded.

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    Re: Developmental Plans in India

    Post  Abhishek on Thu Apr 28, 2011 6:34 pm

    Rajiv Awas Yojana

    Rajiv Awas Yojana (RAY) is a new scheme announced by the President earlier in 2009, focuses on slum dwellers and the urban poor.
    This scheme aims at promoting a slum-free India in five years and would focus on according property rights to slum dwellers.
    The scheme will focus on according property rights to slum dwellers and the urban poor by the states and union territories.
    It would provide basic amenities such as water supply, sewerage, drainage, internal and approach roads, street lighting and social infrastructure facilities in slums and low income settlements adopting a 'whole city' approach. It would also provide subsidized credit.
    Allocation for housing and provision of basic amenities to urban poor enhanced to Rs. 3,973 crore in the Union Budget 2009-10. This includes provision of Rs. 150 Crore for Rajiv Awas Yojana (RAY).
    As per the UPA government's proposal for this scheme , the schemes for affordable housing through partnership and the scheme for interest subsidy for urban housing would be dovetailed into the Rajiv Awas Yojana which would extend support under JNNURM to States that are willing to assign property rights to people living in slum areas.
    The Government's effort would be to create a slum free India through the Rajiv Awas Yojana.
    The Concept Note on RAY was finalized and sent to Planning Commission for their ‘in principle’ approval. The Planning Commission has accorded its ‘in principle’ approval for the proposed scheme recently. The draft guidelines of the scheme has been prepared and circulated to all States/UTs/Central Ministries and experts/NGOs for comments.
    Developing a robust database on slums is critical for implementation of the proposed Rajiv Awas Yojana (RAY). The Ministry of HUPA has released funds for Slum/Household/Livelihoods surveys in 394 class I cities having more than one lakh population in the country.
    The surveys are in progress. Funds will also be released for other towns/cities in a phased manner. An e-enabled MIS is being developed for processing of data and building a national database.

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    Re: Developmental Plans in India

    Post  Abhishek on Thu Apr 28, 2011 6:34 pm

    Twenty Point Programme

    The Twenty Point Programme was initially launched by Prime Minister Indira Gandhi in 1975 and was subsequently restructured in 1982 and again on 1986. With the introduction of new policies and programmes it has been finally restructured in 2006 and it has been in operation at present. The Programmes and Schemes under TPP-2006 are in harmony with the priorities contained in the National Common Minimum Programme, the Millennium Development Goals of the United Nations and SAARC Social Charter. The restructured Programme, called Twenty Point Programme – 2006 (TPP-2006), was approved by the Cabinet on 5th October, 2006 and operated w.e.f 1.4.2007.
    The basic objective of the 20-Point Programme is to eradicate poverty and to improve the quality of life of the poor and the under privileged population of the country. The programme covers various Socio-economic aspects like poverty, employment, education, housing, health, agriculture and land reforms, irrigation, drinking water, protection and empowerment of weaker sections, consumer protection, environment etc.

    The 20 points of the Programme and its 66 items have been carefully designed and selected to achieve the above objectives.
    The 20 Point Program Consisted following:

    Attack on rural poverty

    Strategy for Rained agriculture

    Better use of irrigation water

    Bigger harvest

    Enforcement of Land Reforms

    Special Programs for rural labour

    Clean drinking water

    Health for all

    two child norm

    expansion of education

    Justice for SC / ST

    Equality for women

    New Opportunities for women

    Housing for the people

    Improvement for slums

    New Strategy for Forestry

    Protection of environment

    concern for the consumer

    Energy for the villages

    A responsive administration

    The TPP further restructured in 2006 has following Points:

    Poverty eradication

    power to people

    Support to farmers

    Labour welfare

    Food security

    Clean drinking water

    Housing for all

    Health for all

    Education for all

    Welfare of SC/ ST/ OBC and minorities

    Women welfare

    Child welfare

    Youth Development

    Improvement of slums

    Environment protection and afforestation

    Social security

    Rural Roads

    Energising of rural areas

    Development of Backward areas

    IT enabled and e-governance

    The monitoring of the programme at the centre has been assigned to the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of India. The management information system relating to Twenty Point developed by the Ministry consists of a monthly Progress Report (MPR) and yearly Review of the Programme, Point-wise, Item-wise and State-wise. The monthly report covers progress on the implementation of the programme for 20 crucial points for which there is pre-set physical targets and the Yearly Review presents an analytical review of the performance of all the items under the programme.

    Among the 20 points and 66 items mentioned earlier, 25 items are monitored on monthly basis. In the Monthly Progress Reports, prepared and published by the Central Nodal Department, ranking among States are being prepared and published depending on the percentage of achievements against targets of 20 ranking items/parameters (in case of West Bengal). Up til now, this Department has received and furnished consolidated MPR, in the prescribed format, for the month of January ‘2008. The list of ranking items and their physical progress reports against targets are furnished below for better comprehension of the subject. It is pertinent to mention here that among the ranking 20 items/parameters, the monthly reports for three Items are being directly submitted to the central Nodal Department by the concerned implementing Departments. This State Nodal Department then sends reports for the following 17 items parameters.

    1. Total Swarojgaries Assisted under SGSY (Panchayat Department & RD)

    2. SHGs to whom income Generating activities provided

    3. Rural Housing – Indira Awas Yojna (Housing Departments)

    4. EWS/LIG Houses in urban Areas Rural Areas

    5. (a) Accelerated Rural water supply programme

    (b) Slipped back habitations with water quality problems

    Immunization of children

    6. (a) Routine Immunisation (Health Department*)

    (b) Pulse Polio Immunisation

    7. SC Families Assisted (Backward Classes welfare Department)

    8. Universalising of ICDS Scheme [ICDS Blocks Operational (cum)]

    9. Functional Anganwadis (cum)

    9. No. of poor Families Assisted under 7 point charter (Municipal Affairs/UD Implementing Agency )


    11. (a) Area covered under Plantation (Forest Department)

    (b) No. of Seedings Planted (Forest Department)

    12. Rural Roads – PMGSY ( Panchayats and R & D)

    13. Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidyntikaran Jojana – Villages electrified

    14. Energising pump sets ((Power Department)

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    Re: Developmental Plans in India

    Post  Abhishek on Thu Apr 28, 2011 6:37 pm

    Jawahar Rozgar Yojna

    Jawahar Rozgar Yojna was launched on April 1, 1989 by merging National Rural Employment Program (NREP) and Rural Landless Employment Guarantee Programme (RLEGP). At the end of Seventh Five Year PlanSo this was a consolidation of the previous employment programs and it was largest National Employment Program of India at that time with a general objective of providing 90-100 Days Employment per person particularly in backward districts. People below Poverty Line were main targets. The Yojna was implemented on rural scale. Every village was to be covered through Panchayati Raj Institutions. The village got aide and support from District Rural Development Authority. Expenditures were born by central & state in 80:20 ratios.
    Since 1993-94 the Yojna was made more targets oriented and expanded substantially through increased budgetary allocations. It was divided into 3 streams:
    First Stream: Comprising general works under JRY and also two sub schemes Indira Awas Yojna and Million Wells Scheme. This stream got 75% of the total allocation. In Indira Awas Yojna the allocation was increased from 6% to 10 % and in Million Wells Scheme from 20% to 30 % during that period.
    Second Stream: This was also called intensified JRY and was implemented in selected 120 backward districts. It got 20% allocation.
    Third Stream: This was left with 5 % allocation for Innovative programs which included Prevention of labor migration, drought proofing watershed etc. programs. Since April 1, 1999 this Yojna was replaced by Jawahar Gram samridhi Yojna. Later from September 25, 2001, Jawahar Gram Samridhi Yojna was merged with Sampoorna Grameen Rozgar Yojna

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    Re: Developmental Plans in India

    Post  Abhishek on Thu Apr 28, 2011 6:38 pm

    Accelerated Power Development and Reform Programme (APDRP)

    Accelerated Power Development and Reform Programme or APDRP has been undertaken from the year 2000-01 with the twin objectives of financial turn-around in the performance of the power sector especially in electric distribution and improvement in quality of supply. The role of APDRP is to act as a catalyst for bringing about the desired changes through funding arrangements for implementing schemes.
    The schemes are targeted towards improving financial viability and customer satisfaction. The scheme comprises of 25% grant and 25% of soft loans from the Central Government to the State Government. The remaining 50% resources have to be generated by State Government. The states also have to commit themselves for agreed loss improvement and collection improvement.
    APDRP mainly focuses on six aspects i.e. Customer, Feeder, Distribution Circle, SEB, State and the Nation.

    1. Improving financial viability: This can be achieved by reducing Transmission and Distribution (T&D) losses and improving revenue collections.

    2. Reduction of T&D losses to around 10 %: The reported total T&D losses are 24 % on an all India average basis. Losses including pilferage and wrong classification are much higher in some pockets of India. Thus, the higher losses are mainly due to commercial losses. The T&D losses are pegged at around 10% in better managed power systems in the developed countries. In some States of India where private utilities are in place, the T&D loss is about 11 %, which is close to the world benchmark of 7 to 8 %. This also points out that the loss figure of around 10 to 15 % is achievable in better administered organizations. Privatization has better scope to show efficiency improvement.

    3. Improving customer satisfaction: Customer satisfaction can be improved by providing better quality power through reduced voltage fluctuations and improved availability.

    4. Transparency through Computerization: Along with 100 % energy metering in the districts, it is necessary to enforce energy accounting and auditing as per Energy Conservation Act 2001. Energy accounting system should be able to take input data automatically at various levels from central meter reading control system. Based on this data, energy accounting system should be able to provide information about the losses and pilferages at various levels.

    Most of the States have initiated actions to implement schemes under APDRP programme. Tamil Nadu has introduced the concept of reliability index for power supply in six cities and towns - Chennai, Coimbatore, Tiruchi, Madurai, Salem and Tirunelveli. Tata Power monitors reliability indices such as CAIFI, CAIDI, SAIFI, SAIDI, etc. for Mumbai distribution. Andhra Pradesh has started computing power supply reliability index for 20 towns and has also put in place an effective anti-pilferage legislation. The State has set up call centres in all district headquarters and has planned to set them in the rural areas in near future. In States where feeder and consumer metering have been completed, immediate gains in revenue ranging from 20 to 30 % have been visible. Other States are in the process of implementing such projects.

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    Re: Developmental Plans in India

    Post  Abhishek on Sat Apr 30, 2011 7:55 pm

    Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM)

    Cities and towns of India constitute the world’s second largest urban system. They contribute over 50% of country’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and are central to economic growth. For these cities to realize their full potential and become true engines of growth, it is necessary that focused attention be given to the improvement of infrastructure therein. For achieving this objective, a Mission mode approach is essential.

    JNNURM was launched on 3rd December 2005.


    Focused attention to integrated development of basic services to the urban poor Security of tenure at affordable price, improved housing, water supply, sanitation;
    Convergence of services in fields of education, health and social security
    As far as possible providing housing near the place of occupation of the urban poor
    Effective linkage between asset creation and asset management to ensure efficiency
    Scaling up delivery of civic amenities and provision of utilities with emphasis on universal access to urban poor.

    Ensuring adequate investment of funds to fulfill deficiencies in the basic services to the urban poor.

    Sub Missions:

    JNNURM comprises two Sub-Missions :

    Urban Infrastructure and Governance (UIG) (Sub-mission I)

    Basic Services to the Urban Poor Urban (BSUP) (Sub-mission II)

    There are, in addition, two other components:

    Urban Infrastructure Development of Small & Medium Towns (UIDSSMT)

    Integrated Housing and Slum Development Programme (IHSDP)

    Number of Cities as of December 20, 2009:

    The number of cities in Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission is 65 by the end of 2009.

    The last two cities added are Tirupati and Porbundar.
    Purchase of Buses:

    Under the second stimulus package announced by the Government on 2.1.2009, it has been decided that States, as a one time measure upto 30.6.2009 would be provided assistance under the JNNURM for the purchase of buses for their urban transport systems.

    Accordingly under the scheme launched by the Ministry of Urban Development, a total of 15260 buses have been approved for 61 JNNURM cities at a total cost of Rs. 4723.94 crore out of which total admissible Central Assistance would be Rs. 2088.05 crore.

    Progress in UIG Component:

    For Urban Infrastructure and Governance (UIG) component Additional Central Assistance(ACA) for was increased from Rs. 25,500 crore to Rs. 31,500 crore for the Year 2009.

    Under the UIG component of JNNURM, 20 projects were sanctioned during 2009, bringing total number of projects sanctioned under the UIG component since inception (i.e. since 3rd December 2005) to 481.

    Progress in UIDSSMT component:

    Seven year allocation for the Urban Infrastructure Development for Small and Medium Towns (UIDSSMT) component was raised from Rs. 6400 crore to Rs. 11,400 crore in the Year 2009.

    New Schemes:

    Two new Schemes were launched in 2009
    The Asian Development Bank assisted North Eastern Region Urban Development Programme (NERUDP) covering Agartala, Shillong, Aizawl, Kohima and Gangtok
    Scheme for infrastructure development in the satellite towns around the seven mega cities.

    Proposed Programme Management Unit :

    To strengthen the capacity of State Level Nodal Agency (SLNA) to effectively coordinate implementation of projects and reforms under Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission, Ministry of Urban Development has proposed to support a Programme Management Unit (PMU) at the SLNA.

    The financial support for establishing PMUs was initiated in June 2007. Based on proposals sent by the states the Mission Directorate has approved 19 PMUs of which, 10 states have established arid operationalized PMUs.

    Project Implementation Unit (PIU)

    The Mission Directorate is providing financial and technical support to establish Project Implementation Units (PIUs) at the municipal level, to enhance their capability to effectively implement projects and reforms under JNNURM. The PIU is meant to be an operations unit supplementing and enhancing the existing skill mix of the ULB, rather than a supervisory body. The Mission Directorate has approved 45 PIUs of which 26 PIUs have established andd operationalized by the ULBs.

    Independent Review and Monitoring Agency (IRMA)

    IRMAs are agencies to be appointed by the states for monitoring of the progress of implementation of the projects sanctioned under the JNNURM so that the funds released are utilized in a purposeful and time-bound manner.

    The proposals of Kerala, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Maharashtra, West Bengal, Pudducherry, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Assam, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh and Karnataka for appointment of IRMA have been approved by the CSMC.

    IRMAs have been established in Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Uttarakhand, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Karnataka and Rajasthan.

    The states of Bihar, Delhi, Nagaland, Haryana and Himachal Pradesh are in the process of appointing IRMAs.

    For the states of Chandigarh, Jammu & Kashmir, Punjab, Mizoram, Meghalaya, Sikkim, Tripura, Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Chattisgarh, Jharkhand, Orissa and Goa, Ministry of Urban Development has initiated steps for appointment of IRMAs on behalf of these States.

    CSMC has approved the selection of firms for appointment of IRMAs in these States and States have been intimated about the decision for entering into the agreement with the selected firms.

    Peer Experience and Reflective Learning (PEARL)

    The “Peer Experience and Reflective Learning” (PEARL) programme was launched to foster cross learning and knowledge sharing through networking among the Mission cities.

    To achieve this objective, the Mission supported formation of groups/networks amongst JNNURM cities having similar socio-economic profile and urban issues, along with natural affinity to peer pair.

    The National Institute of Urban Affairs (NIUA) has been appointed as the National Coordinator for the PEARL programme for coordinating the overall functioning of the networks, with an appreciation of the independent self driven nature of the networks, and assisting the Mission Directorate in supporting and monitoring the programme.
    Under the programme, network of heritage cities have organized knowledge sharing workshops.

    A website has been made operational providing tools to support networking and knowledge sharing. NIUA has brought out a newsletter “PEARL Update”.
    Credit Rating in JNNURM

    JNNURM has undertaken an exercise for assessment of finances and credit worthiness of the Mission ULBs, through process of credit rating.
    This is intended to trigger the process of leveraging debt for JNNURM projects and to provide a platform for the ULBs and financial institutions to engage on issues related to project financing.

    Presently, 59 ULBs in the Mission cities have been assigned final rating and made public. Four workshops have been conducted for dissemination of ratings and bringing the ULBs in contact with the banks financial institutions.

    The surveillance rating has been initiated in Feb 2009. The surveillance ratings will include, but will not be restricted to major developments since last rating, issues / concerns raised, by the rating agencies, during the first round of rating, and rationale for re-affirming /changing the ratings.

    Programme Management and Evaluation System (PMES)

    PMES has been developed as a comprehensive web-enabled Management Information System (MIS) which will serve to cover all the critical aspects of programme implementation. Intensive hands-on training for City as well as State level officials has been conducted to ensure effective use of the application.

    Further rounds of training have been planned and will be rolled out shortly. PMES is live for all States covering 52 Mission cities, training for which have been completed.
    Public Private Partnership (PPP) initiatives

    The Mission Cities have agreed to include promotion of PPP through appropriate policies and projects as a part of the reforms agenda.

    A number of States such as Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Gujarat, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Orissa, Rajasthan, West Bengal, have adopted PPP policy.

    PPP cell has also been established by Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Gujarat, Karnataka, Punjab and West Bengal for promotion of PPP for infrastructure projects in their States.

    PPP initiatives have been taken by Indore, Vadodara, Pune and Ahmedabad for establishing City Bus Service.

    Establishment of City Voluntary Technical Corp. (CVTC)
    City Volunteer Technical Corps (CVTC’s) and City Technical Advisory Groups (CTAG’s) are voluntary groups of professionally qualified persons in the sectors of urban planning, urban governance, urban engineering, legal and financial services and urban poverty.

    Their setting up was being facilitated by the National Technical Advisory Group (NTAG) on request of the ULBs.

    Community Participation Fund

    A Community Participation Fund (CPF) has been established on 4.6.2007 by the Mission Directorate with the initial corpus of Rs. 100 crore with the provision of Rs. 90 crore for the projects during the remaining years of mission period.
    So far 39 proposals under CPF have been approved.

    National Mission Mode project (NMMP) on e-Governance in Municipalities as part of JNNURM
    A Mission Mode Project on e-Governance in municipalities has been prepared by this Ministry to make urban governance more efficient and effective.
    Since local government is the first interface between citizens and government this initiative would solve a number of problems that the people in towns and cities are facing due to rapid urbanization. It would assist improved service delivery, decentralization, better information management & transparency, citizen’s involvement in government, improved interaction between local governments and its citizens as well as other interest groups like NGOs, CBOs, RWAs, etc.

    It has been decided that initially the scheme would be a part of Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM) for 35 cities with population of over 10 lakh and a new Centrally Sponsored Scheme (CSS) for other cities and towns would be taken up after watching the implementation under JNNURM.

    Accordingly, the guidelines on NMMP on e-Governance in municipalities have been prepared and circulated to the States/ULBs for submission of DPRs.
    Six projects on e-governance in Municipalities have since been approved for the city of Vijayawada, Nagpur, Kochi, Pune, Navi Mumbai and Ulhasnagar.

    JUST Project

    JNNURM Urban Strengthening and Transformation (JUST) Project [Capacity Building for Urban Development -CBUD] is a World Bank assisted project.

    It consists of US$ 60 million combining US$ 40 million for Urban Development component and US$ 20 million for Urban Poverty component in 20 participating ULBs which would implement at least two reforms covering financial management, planning governance, service delivery as well as poverty reducing strategies.
    The selection of the 20 ULBs would be done by the CSMC involving a mix from leading and lagging states using criteria for urban governance, provisioning of urban services and urban poverty.

    Capacity Building Scheme for Urban Local Bodies (CBULB)

    In order to strengthen the capacities of Urban Local Bodies other than those towns and cities not covered under JNNURM and UIDSSMT, Ministry of Urban Development, Government of India has formulated a scheme viz. ‘Capacity Building Scheme for Urban Local Bodies’ (CBULB) having a total outlay for Rs. 125 crore for 11th Five Year Plan with the objective of setting up of centres of excellence in the field of urban development.

    Under this scheme, financial assistance is being extended to Identified Institutions/Cities/States for aforesaid objectives. At present, Ministry of Urban Development has received proposals from Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Maharashtra, Kerala and Karnataka Governments for financial assistance under CBULB scheme.

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    Re: Developmental Plans in India

    Post  Abhishek on Sat Apr 30, 2011 7:59 pm

    National Food For Work Programme

    This program was subsumed with the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA) in February 2006.

    The National Food for Work Programme was launched in November 2004 in 150 most backward districts of the country, identified by the Planning Commission in consultation with the Ministry of Rural Development and the State governments.

    The objective of the programme was to provide additional resources apart from the resources available under the Sampoorna Grameen Rozgar Yojana (SGRY) to 150 most backward districts of the country so that generation of supplementary wage employment and providing of food-security through creation of need based economic, social and community assets in these districts are further intensified.

    The scheme was 100 per cent Centrally sponsored.

    The programme has since been subsumed in National Rural Employment Guarantee Act which has come in force in 200 identified districts of the country including 150 NFFWP districts.

    The Act provided 100 days of work guarantee to every rural household whose members volunteer to do unskilled manual work.

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    Re: Developmental Plans in India

    Post  Abhishek on Sat Apr 30, 2011 8:01 pm

    National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA)

    What is NREGA?

    • NREGA is designed as a safety net to reduce migration by rural poor households in the lean period through A hundred days of guaranteed unskilled manual labour provided when demanded at minimum wage on works focused on water conservation, land development & drought proofing.

    • Notification of the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act came in September 2005. It was launched on February 2, 2006.

    • NREGA is the flagship programme of the UPA Government that directly touches lives of the poor and promotes inclusive growth.

    • The Act aims at enhancing livelihood security of households in rural areas of the country by providing at least one hundred days of guaranteed wage employment in a financial year to every household whose adult members volunteer to do unskilled manual work.

    • The ongoing programmes of Sampoorn Grameen Rozgar Yojna &National Food for Work Programme were subsumed within this programme in the 200 of the most backward districts of the country, in which it was introduced in phase -1 .

    • In phase-2 it was introduced in 130 additional districts.

    • The scheme was extended to 274 rural districts from April 1, 2008 in phase-3.

    • NREGA is the first ever law internationally, that guarantees wage employment at an unprecedented scale.

    • Dr. Jean Drèze, a Belgian born economist, at the Delhi School of Economics, has been a major influence on this project.
    What are Objectives of NREGA?

    • Augmenting wage employment.

    • Strengthening natural resource management through works that address causes of chronic poverty like drought, deforestation and soil erosion and so encourage sustainable development.

    • Strengthening grassroots processes of democracy

    • Infusing transparency and accountability in governance.

    • Strengthening decentralization and deepening processes of democracy by giving a pivotal role to the Panchayati Raj Institutions in planning, monitoring and implementation.
    What are the Unique Features of NREGA?

    • Time bound employment guarantee and wage payment within 15 days

    • Incentive-disincentive structure to the State Governments for providing employment as 90 per cent of the cost for employment provided is borne by the Centre or payment of unemployment allowance at their own cost and emphasis on labour intensive works prohibiting the use of contractors and machinery.

    • The Act mandates a 33 percent participation for women.
    How NREGA is Implemented? The following image shows the key processes in the implementation of NREGA.

    • Cost sharing : Central Government 3/4th , State Government 1/4th

    • Adult members of rural households submit their name, age and address with photo to the Gram Panchayat.

    • The Gram panchayat registers households after making enquiry and issues a job card. The job card contains the details of adult member enrolled and his /her photo.

    • Registered person can submit an application for work in writing (for at least fourteen days of continuous work) either to panchayat or to Programme Officer.

    • The panchayat/programme officer will accept the valid application and issue dated receipt of application, letter providing work will be sent to the applicant and also displayed at panchayat office.

    • The employment will be provided within a radius of 5 km: if it is above 5 km extra wage will be paid.

    • If employment under the scheme is not provided within fifteen days of receipt of the application daily unemployment allowance will be paid to the applicant.
    NREGA & Union Budget 2009-10:

    • During 2008-09, NREGA provided employment opportunities for more than 4.47 crore households as against 3.39 crore households covered in 2007-08.

    • Govt. is committed to providing a real wage of Rs. 100 a day as an entitlement under the NREGA.

    • To increase the productivity of assets and resources under NREGA, convergence with other schemes relating to agriculture, forests, water resources, land resources and rural roads is being initiated. In the first stage, a total of 115 pilot districts have been selected for such convergence.

    • Govt of India has proposed an allocation of Rs. 39,100 crore for the year 2009-10 for NREGA which marks an increase of 144% over 2008-09 Budget Estimates.
    How Monitoring & Evaluation is Done in NREGA?

    • The Ministry has set up a comprehensive monitoring system. For effective monitoring of the projects 100% verfication of the works at the Block level, 10% at the District level and 2% at the State level inspections need to be ensured.
    • In order to optimize the multiplier effects of NREGA, the Ministry has set up a Task Force to look at the possibility of convergence of programmes like National Horticulture Mission, Rashtriya Krishi vikas Yojana, Bharat Nirman, Watershed Development with NREGA.
    • These convergence efforts will add value to NREGA, works and aid in creating durable efforts and also enable planned and coordinated public investments in rural areas.

    Critical Issues of NREGA, how they are addressed?

    • Issues Related to Job Cards: To ensure that rural families likely to seek unskilled manual labour are identified & verify against reasonably reliable local data base so that nondomiciled contractor’s workers are not used on NREGA works . What is done for this problem? Job card verification is done on the spot against an existing data base and Reducing the time lag between application and issue of job cards to eliminate the possibility of rentseeking, and creating greater transparency etc. Besides ensuring that Job Cards are issued prior to employment demand and work allocation rather than being issued on work sites which could subvert the aims of NREGA

    • Issues related to Applications: To ascertain choices and perceptions of households regarding lean season employment to ensure exercise of the right to employment within the time specified of fifteen days to ensure that works are started where and when there is demand for labour, not demand for works the process of issuing a dated acknowledgement for the application for employment needs to be scrupulously observed. In its absence, the guarantee cannot be exercised in its true spirit

    • Issues Related to Selection of Works: Selection of works by gram sabha in villages and display after approval of shelf of projects, to ensure public choice, transparency and accountability and prevent material intensive, contractor based works and concocted works records

    • Issues related to Execution of Works: At least half the works should be run by gram panchayats . Maintenance of muster roll by executing agency -numbered muster rolls which only show job card holders must be found at each work-to prevent contractor led works

    • Issues related to measurement of work done: Regular measurement of work done according to a schedule of rural rates sensitive Supervision of Works by qualified technical personnel on time. Reading out muster rolls on work site during regular measurement -to prevent bogus records and payment of wages below prescribed levels

    • Issues related to Payments: Payment of wages through banks and post offices -to close avenues for use of contractors, short payment and corruption

    • Audit : Provision of adequate quality of work site facilities for women and men labourers Creation and maintenance of durable assets Adequate audit and evaluation mechanisms Widespread institution of social audit and use of findings
    Some Points:

    • Rozgar Jagrookta Puruskar award has been introduced to recognize outstanding Contributions by Civil society Organizations at State, District, Block and Gram Panchayat levels to generate awareness about provisions and entitlements and ensuring compliance with implementing processes.

    • The government has engaged professional institutions like IIMs, IITs and agricultural universities to assess the implementation of NREGA across the country.
    Criticism of NREGA :
    Here are some points raised regarding the implementation and success of NREGA in various news papers and magazines:

    • In last 3 years on average only 50% of the households that registered under the scheme actually got employment. (times of India)

    • There is a wide variation of performance across states. In terms of the percentage of registered households provided work, Maharashtra has averaged an abysmal 13% over the three years while Rajasthan at the other end of the spectrum has averaged 73%. (Times of India)

    • The rural poverty line, which is now in the region of Rs. 400 per capita per day, means that an average household that is below the poverty line (BPL) will have an income of something in the range of Rs. 24,000 per annum or less, assuming a five-member household. In other words, if a BPL family were to get the full promised benefit of NREGA they could earn the equivalent of more than 40% of their annual income from this one scheme alone. That should be enough to see why NREGA should not be seen as just another of the plethora of poverty alleviation schemes that India has had since Independence. (Times of India)

    • If this scheme is implemented the right way, there will be no need for MP and MLAs funds. Look at the figures: At Rs. 2 crore per 543 MP, the allocation comes to Rs. 1086 crore (most times this remains underutilized). In his budget, finance minister Pranab Mukherjee has increased the NREGA allocation by 144% and it's now Rs. 39,100 crore. (Times of India)

    • The Planning Commission has sought the Reserve Bank of India’s intervention in streamlining the mechanism of paying wages under the NREGA. In a letter to the central bank, the Commission said that the RBI should give directions to banks to ensure that payments to the beneficiaries of the NREGA are made only through banks or post-offices. The Commission has pointed out that disbursing funds under the NREGA, which has an annual allocation of Rs30,000 crore, needs to be strengthened to ensure that no leakages happen as the canvas of the programme is bound to expand in the near future.

    • Despite the political and economic importance NREGA has generated, there are lack of studies on the working of public employment programmes.

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    Re: Developmental Plans in India

    Post  Abhishek on Sat Apr 30, 2011 8:02 pm

    National Food Security Mission
    To meet the growing food grain demand, National Development Council in its 53rd meeting adopted a resolution to enhance the production of rice, wheat and pulses by 10, 8 and 2 million tons respectively by 2011 with an outlay of Rs. 4,882 crore under National Policy for Farmers in the Eleventh Five Year Plan.The proposed Centrally Sponsored Scheme ‘National Food Security Mission (NFSM) is to operationalise the resolution of NDC and enhance the production of rice, wheat and pulses.
    Key Features:
    1. The scheme to be implemented in a mission mode through a farmer centric approach
    2. All the Stakeholders to be actively associated at the District levels for achieving the set goal.
    3. The scheme aims to target the select districts by making available the improved technologies to the farmers through a series of planned interventions.
    4. A close monitoring mechanism proposed to ensure that interventions reach to the targeted beneficiaries.
    1. Increasing production of rice, wheat and pulses through area expansion and productivity enhancement in a sustainable manner;
    2. Restoring soil fertility and productivity at individual farm level;
    3. Enhancing farm level economy (i.e. farm profits) to restore confidence of farmers of targeted districts
    1. Expansion of area of Pulses and Wheat, No expansion of area in rice
    2. Bridging the yield gap between the potential and the present level of productivity through
    3. Acceleration of seed production
    4. Integrated Nutrient Management and Integrated Pest Management
    5. Promotion of new production technologies like hybrid rice, timely planting of wheat and promotion of new improved variety of Pulses
    6. Supply of input ensuring their timely availability
    7. Farmers Training and Visits
    Components of NFSM-Rice
    1. Demonstration of improved technology including hybrid and System of Rice Intensification (SRI)
    2. Incentive for quality seeds of HYVs/hybrids
    3. Popularization of new varieties through seed mini kits
    4. Promotion of micro nutrients, lime and gypsum
    5. Promotion of mechanical weeders and other farm implements
    6. Integrated pest management
    7. Extension, training and mass media campaign
    8. Awards for best performing district in each State.
    9. Assistance for innovative interventions at local level
    Components of NFSM : Wheat
    1. Demonstration of improved Technology
    2. Incentive for quality seeds of HYVs to raise the SRR
    3. Promotion of micronutrient use in deficient areas
    4. Incentive for promotion of application of Gypsum
    5. Popularization of Zero till Machines and rotavator
    6. Providing subsidy on diesel pumpsets and community generators for irrigation
    7. Extension, training and mass media campaign awards for best performing districts
    8. Assistance for innovative interventions at local level
    Components of NFSM Pulses
    1. Increasing seed replacement rate to 25% from present level of 7-8%
    2. Promotion of improved production technologies
    3. Integrated Nutrient Management (INM)
    4. Integrated Pest Management (IPM)
    5. Promotion of micronutrients/gypsum/bio-fertilizers
    6. Promotion of sprinkler irrigation
    7. Pilot Project on tackling the menace of blue bull
    8. Extension, training and mass media campaign
    9. Awards for best performing districts
    10. Pilot project on demonstration ICRISAT Technologies.
    Flow of Funds:
    1. Funds for the Mission’s programmes to be directly released to the State Food Security Mission (SFSM) agency after approval by the National Executive Committee.
    2. State Mission agency would ensure implementation of the programmes, in a time-bound manner and would make available funds to the District level implementing agency in accordance with their approved programmes.
    3. Funds would be released in installments based on progress reports and furnishing of utilization certificates


    Financial Outlay
    Area of Operation:

    The program covers now 17 states and 311 districts and has become operational from Rabi 2007-08.
    The identified districts are given flexibility to adopt any local area specific interventions as are included in the Strategic Research & Extension Plan (SERP). Rs. 2 crore for those districts with NFSM for 2 crops and Rs. 1 crore for districts with NFSM for 1 crop.
    Under the NFSM, initial reports indicate an increase in wheat seed distribution from 43% in Rajasthan to as high as 10 times in Bihar. In pulses also, the increase in use of improved seed range from 29% in Rajasthan to more than 400% in Chhattisgarh.


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    Re: Developmental Plans in India

    Post  Abhishek on Sat Apr 30, 2011 8:03 pm

    Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojna

    • The PMGSY, was launched in December, 2000, to provide road connectivity to 1.6 lakh unconnected habitations with population of 500 persons or more (250 in case of hilly, desert and tribal areas) in the rural areas by the end of the Tenth Plan period.

    • It is being executed in all the States and six UTs. Although the initial estimates indicated a requirement of Rs. 60,000 crore for the program, the present indications are that about Rs. 1,30,000 crore will be needed for achieving the intended connectivity.

    • As per the Budget announcements of 2003-04, the diesel cess which is the source for funding the programme, was increased from Re. 1 per litre to Rs. 1.50 per litre, in order to provide additional funds for the programme. Since the inception of the program, project proposals for Rs. 14,417 crore have been cleared and 88,685 Kms. of rural roads have been taken up under this program. 20,740 road works had been completed till March 2004, and an expenditure of over Rs. 6,547 crore has been incurred by the States/UTs.

    • The National Rural Roads Development Agency (NRRDA), registered under the Societies Registration Act, provides Operations and Management support for the program. The Asian Development Bank (ADB) has agreed to support the development of rural roads in Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh, which have been identified as recipient States for the first tranche. The ADB Board has approved a loan of $400 million (in a project size of $571 million). The States of Assam, Orissa and West Bengal have been identified for the second tranche of ADB assistance, of the order of US $500million.

    • A first tranche of $400 million for funding projects in Himachal Pradesh, Jharkhand, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh is likely to be available from the World Bank by the end of 2004-05.

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    Re: Developmental Plans in India

    Post  Abhishek on Sat Apr 30, 2011 8:04 pm

    Drought Prone Areas Programme

    • Desert Development Program (DDP) and Integrated Wastelands Development Program (IWDP) are being implemented for the development of wastelands / degraded lands.

    • DPAP was launched in 1973-74 to tackle the special problems faced by those areas constantly affected by drought conditions.

    • DDP was launched in 1977-78 to mitigate the adverse effects of desertification. IWDP has been under implementation since 1989-90. These programs were implemented on a sectoral basis till 1994-95.

    • Since April 1995, these programs are being implemented on watershed basis. For the project DPAP, total number of the projects sanctioned were 2,535, with funds released by the Centre at Rs. 295 crore.

    • Under DDP, 1,562 projects have been sanctioned with funds of amount Rs. 215 crore; and under IWDP, 190 projects with funding of Rs. 306 crore, were sanctioned. The cost norms for all the three schemes have been revised to Rs. 6,000 per hectare.

    • Under DPAP and DDP, the cost is shared between the Centre and the States in the ratio of 75:25, while in the case of IWDP, Rs.5,500 is borne by the Central Government and Rs. 500 is shared by the States.

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    Re: Developmental Plans in India

    Post  Abhishek on Sat Apr 30, 2011 8:05 pm

    Antyodaya Anna Yojna

    • AAY was launched in December 2000.

    • Under the scheme 1 crore of the poorest among the BPL families covered under the targeted public distribution system are identified.

    • Twenty five kilograms (kg) of food grains were made available to each eligible family at a highly subsidized rate of Rs. 2 per kg for wheat and Rs. 3 per kg for rice. This quantity has been enhanced from 25 to 35 kgs with effect from April, 2002.

    • The scheme has been further expanded in June 2003 by adding another 50 lakh BPL families. Under the scheme, during 2002-03, against an allocation of 41.27 lakh tonnes of foodgrain, 35.39 lakh tonnes have been lifted by State Governments, and during 2003-04, 38.24 lakh tonnes of food-grain have been lifted against an allocation of 45.56 lakh tonnes.

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    Re: Developmental Plans in India

    Post  Abhishek on Sat Apr 30, 2011 8:07 pm

    Swaran Jayanti Shahari Rozgar Yojna

    • The Urban Self-Employment Program and the Urban Wage Employment Program are two special schemes of the SJSRY initiated in December 1997, which replaced various programs operated earlier for urban poverty alleviation.

    • Between the Centre and the States, SJSRY is funded on a 75:25 basis. During 2002-03, the full allocation of Rs. 105 crore provided for various components of this program was released. For 2003-04, an allocation of Rs. 94.50 crore plus Rs. 10.5 crore for North East and Sikkim was provided for various components of this program. The expenditure during 2003-04 was Rs. 105 crore.
    Update : November 12, 2009
    Swarna jayanti Shahari Rozgar Yojna has been comprehensively revamped by the Union Housing & Urban Poverty Alleviation ministry as per a press release by PIB on November 12, 2009. The new scheme has commenced from 2009-2010. SJSRY will have five major components:

    • Urban Self Employment Programme (USEP)

    • Urban Women Self-help Programme (UWSP)

    • Skill Training for Employment Promotion amongst Urban Poor (STEP-UP)

    • Urban Wage Employment Programme (UWEP)

    • Urban Community Development Network (UCDN)
    The following major changes have been effected in the scheme:

    • For the beneficiary under the Urban Self Employment Programme (USEP) component of the Scheme, the education limit criteria of “not educated beyond 9th standard” has been removed and now no minimum or maximum educational qualification level has been prescribed for the purpose of eligibility of assistance.

    • For the self-employment (individual category), the project cost ceiling has been enhanced to Rs. 2.00 Lakhs from the existing Rs.50000/- and the subsidy has also been enhanced to 25% of the project cost (subject to a maximum of Rs. 50000/-), from the existing 15% of the project cost (subject to a maximum of Rs.7500/-).

    • For the group enterprises set up by urban poor women, the subsidy has been made as 35% of the project cost or Rs. 300,000/- or Rs. 60,000/- per member of the Group, whichever is less. The minimum number required to form a women group has been reduced from 10 to 5. The revolving fund entitlement per member has also been enhanced from the existing Rs. 1000/- to Rs.2000/-.

    • The Skill Training of the urban poor component has been restructured and quality skill training will be provided to the urban poor linking it with certification, imparted preferably on Public-Private Partnership (PPP) mode, with the involvement of reputed institutions like IITs, NITs, Poly-techniques, ITIs, other reputed agencies etc. The average expenditure ceiling per trainee has been enhanced from the Rs. 2600/- to Rs. 10000/-.
    Central Allocation under SJSRY has been enhanced to Rs. 515 Crores in 2009-10.
    with inputs from PIB

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    Re: Developmental Plans in India

    Post  Abhishek on Sat Apr 30, 2011 8:07 pm

    Valmiki Ambedkar Awas Yojana

    • The VAMBAY was launched in December 2001 to ameliorate the conditions of the urban slum dwellers living below the poverty line without adequate shelter.

    • The scheme has the primary objective of facilitating the construction and up-gradation of dwelling units for slum dwellers and providing a healthy and enabling urban environment through community toilets under Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan, a component of the scheme.

    • The Central Government provides a subsidy of 50 per cent, the balance 50 per cent being arranged by the State Government.

    • There are prescribed ceilings on costs both for dwelling units and community toilets. During 2003-04, Central subsidy to the extent of Rs. 239 crore has been released. Since inception up to May 2004, Rs. 522 crore have been released as Government of India subsidy for the construction/upgradation of 2,46,035 dwelling units and 29,263 toilet seats under the scheme.


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    Re: Developmental Plans in India

    Post  Abhishek on Sat Apr 30, 2011 8:08 pm

    Food For Work Programme

    • The Food for Work Programme was started in January, 2000-01 as part of the Employment Assurance Scheme (EAS) in eight drought affected States viz. Chattisgarh, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Rajasthan, Uttaranchal.

    • The Food for Work Programmes (FFWP) was later expanded to form a part of any wage employment scheme of the Central or State Governments being implemented in the notified districts during periods of natural calamities, such as drought, flood, cyclone or earthquake.

    • Now the programme is in operation in the States of Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chattisgarh, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh,Maharashtra, Orissa and Rajasthan.

    • In this programme the cash component of the wage and material is met from the Scheme under which it is being implemented. The cost of transportation of foodgrains from FCI godowns to the worksites/PDS and its distribution is the responsibility of the State Government.Government of India makes available appropriate quantity of foodgrains to each of the affected States. Foodgrains are supplied to the States as an additionality and free of cost. The cost is borne by the Government of India with a view of enabling the State Governments to provide adequate wage employment opportunities to the needy rural poor.

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    Re: Developmental Plans in India

    Post  Abhishek on Sat Apr 30, 2011 8:09 pm

    National Social Assistance Programme

    • The National Social Assistance Programme (NSAP) which came into effect from 15th August, 1995, is a 100 % Centrally Sponsored Programme.

    • NSAP is a social assistance programme for poor households and represents a significant step towards the fulfillment of the Directive Principles in Articles 41 and 42 of the Constitution recognizing the concurrent responsibility of the Central and State governments in the matter.

    • It has three components namely, National Old Age Pension Scheme (NOAPS), National Family Benefit Scheme (NFBS) and National Maternity Benefit Scheme (NMBS).

    • The NMBS has since been transferred to the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare w.e.f. 1-4-2001. The NSAP aims at providing social security in case of old age, death of primary breadwinner andmaternity.

    • The main objectives and features of the two schemes, NOAPS and NFBS are given below:

    • The Programme aims at ensuring a minimum national standard of social assistance in addition to the benefit that States are already providing.

    • The Central assistance is not to displace expenditure by States on social protection schemes. However, the States/UTs are free to expand their own coverage of social assistance whenever they wish to do so.

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    Re: Developmental Plans in India

    Post  Abhishek on Sat Apr 30, 2011 8:10 pm

    Annapurna Scheme

    • The Annapurna Scheme has been launched with effect from 1st April, 2000.

    • It aims at providing food security to meet the requirement of those senior citizens who, though eligible, have remained uncovered under the National Old Age Pension Scheme(NOAPS).

    • The Scheme is targeted to cover, 20% (13.762 Lakh) of persons eligible to receive pension under NOAPS.The Central assistance under the Annapurna Scheme is, thus, provided to the beneficiaries on fulfilling the following criteria :
      1. The age of the applicant ( male or female) should be 65 years or above.
      2. The applicant must be a destitute in the sense of having little or no regular means of substance from his/her own source of income or through financial support from family members or other sources. In order to determine destitution , the criteria, if any, in force in the States/UTs may also be followed.
      3. The applicant should not be in receipt of pension under the NOAPSor State Pension Scheme.
      4. The beneficiaries are given 10 Kg. of foodgrains per month free of cost.
      Funds are currently released to the State Departments of Food & Civil Supplies (F&CS) in one instalment . This Department then ties up with the Food Corporation of India (FCI), to release foodgrains districtwise on payment of the cost of Foodgrains at CIP rates directly to the FCI offices. Initially the foodgrains were supplied at economic cost ( Rs.9.80 per Kg.). However, w.e.f. 1.11.2000, foodgrains are supplied at the CIP rates for BPL families( Rs.4.90 per Kg.) The beneficiaries under the scheme are selected in the Gram Sabhas and the Gram Panchayat distribute the entitlement cards to the beneficiaries.

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    Re: Developmental Plans in India

    Post  Abhishek on Sat Apr 30, 2011 8:11 pm

    District Rural Development Agencies

    • Over the years the District Rural Development Agencies have emerged as the principal organs at the district level to oversing the implementation of different poverty alleviation programmes.

    • Since inception, the administrative costs of the DRDAs were met by setting apart a certain percentage of the allocation for each Programme. Of late, while the number of programmes increased, not all Programmes provided for the administrative cost of the DRDAs.

    • Keeping in view the need for an effective agency at the district level to co-ordinate the poverty alleviation efforts, a new Centrally Sponsored Scheme for strengthening the DRDAs was introduced w.e.f. 1st April, 1999.

    • The primary objective of the DRDA Administration Scheme is to professionalise the DRDAs so that they are able to effectively manage the poverty alleviation programmes of the Ministry of Rural Development and interact purposively with other agencies. The DRDAs are expected to (effectively) coordinate with the Panchayati Raj Institutions. DRDAs are to maintain their separate identity under the guidelines even though the Chairman of the Zilla Parishad is also the Chairman of the governing body of DRDA.

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    Re: Developmental Plans in India

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